What is manhole? structure and operating principle?



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What is manhole? structure and operating principle?

Sump (drain) is a very familiar name in today's life. So what is a manhole? And how to build a manhole is standard? Let's keep track right in this article.

What is manhole?

Sumps are: a part of the infrastructure construction of the drainage system. Are holes deep in the center of the sewer, with firm lids, and are intended to contain soil, sand, and garbage passing through, so that the water flows easily and cleaner.

cleaning workers only need to lift up the lid to dredge manholes, handle clogged drains easily without having to pass hundreds of meters of sewers.

* What is the drainage hole for?

  • Prevent odor from draining out, polluting the environment in general, ..
  • Effects on human health when inhaled.
  • Meeting the demand for rainwater drainage on the road.
  • Increase the sustainability of street structures, and the sustainability of buildings.
  • Clean up our own habitat.
  • Favorable for regular repair and maintenance.

Structure and operating principle?
Structure of manhole:
Surface water collection pit:

- Lattice block is equal to manhole size: 550 x 350 x 30 (mm)

  • Dimensions L x B x H x D: 500 x 300 x 350 x 70 (mm)

The odor control system will include:

  • Two-piece door with dimensions L x B x D: 830 x 450 x 40 (mm)
  • Water collection dimensions: L x B x H x D: 500 x 400 x 1170 x 70 (mm)
  • The pipe connecting the collecting pit and the odor control system will be: 2 PVC 150 pipes

The principle of operation of manholes:

When there is a flow of sewage, it will flow through two PVC pipes and water will flow into the next pit. At this pit, wastewater will flow through a smaller section to flow into the collection pit below the collection pit.

Manhole distance:

Depending on the type of manhole, the distance will be different. We can refer to the following distances:

  • Normally, every 10m from the pipe, a manhole will appear.
  • If you install pipes with many positions such as T or Y junctions, you should replace them with manholes, so that the drainage will become faster and more efficient.

However, you should also note some of the following issues:

For the distance between manholes for rainwater drainage (floating water) when being built on streets with a width of less than 30 and a slope of greater than 0.03, the distance between manholes must not be larger than 60m.

Types of manhole covers that are commonly used today:

Manhole cover is made of cast iron:

- This type of manhole cover is used oldest and most commonly. The two types of cast iron to produce lids are gray cast iron and cast iron. Because the price of this material is relatively cheap, durable, withstand pressure.

- However, one drawback is that this type has a very heavy weight, making transportation and installation difficult. On the other hand, this type of cap may be stolen due to high recyclable cast iron =))

Manhole cover made of composite:

Composite is a new material, with many advantages. Durability is not cast iron, but easy to move and install.

High rust resistance, there are many different colors. However, the price for this product is quite expensive.

Manhole cover made of steel:

This type of lid is made of stainless steel, galvanized outside. With the ability to withstand large pressures, durable and strong even in the harshest environments. Especially extremely resistant to fire and explosion. Good drainage, easy to clean. However, the price is also quite high.

Manhole covers made of concrete:

Currently, this type of concrete lid is rarely used. Cheap price, available materials. But this type is not durable enough, heavy during transportation. Therefore, they are only used in cases where they are fixed.

Location of indoor manholes?

Place manholes outside:

*Advantages :

- Placing manholes on the outside helps the maintenance be convenient. If the manholes are leaked, it will not affect the structure or beauty of your house.

*Defect :

- The length from the drainage pipe to the manhole will be very long. Should match more need to connect, resulting in frequent congestion.

Put indoor manholes:


- Helps to save costs when you combine with wall structures, foundations, ... Less clogged because the waste is flowing directly into the tank, not through long, cluttered pipes like when placed outside. The operation of the manholes also took place more smoothly.


- When a manhole has an incident that has not been processed immediately, it will directly affect the living space in your home.

Pits play an important role in the house, so when building, please consider and calculate the details before proceeding. Hopefully the article above will help you a bit in understanding what a manhole is!


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